Using Factory Methods to Simulate Map Literals in Java

Unlike many modern programming languages, Java does not support the notion of a "map literal"; that is, a map whose contents are declared using a dedicated language construct rather than being instantiated and populated via explicit API calls. For example, in Swift it is possible to create a dictionary (the Swift equivalent of a Java map) using the following syntax:

var dictionary = ["a": 1, "b": 2, "c": 3]

The result of executing this code is identical to the following, more verbose, version, which first allocates the dictionary and then populates it:

var dictionary = [String: Int]()

dictionary["a"] = 1
dictionary["b"] = 2
dictionary["c"] = 3

Similarly, an object can be constructed in JavaScript using the following literal syntax:

var object = {"a": 1, "b": 2, "c": 3};

or this more verbose equivalent:

var object = new Object();

object["a"] = 1;
object["b"] = 2;
object["c"] = 3;

Because Java does not support map literals, map instances must always be explicitly instantiated and populated. This is especially cumbersome if the map only needs to exist in the context of a single method call:

HashMap map = new HashMap();

map.put("a", 1);
map.put("b", 2);
map.put("c", 3);


Fortunately, it is possible to approximate the behavior of map literals in Java using factory methods. For example:

// Create a map from a variable length array of map entries
public static <K> Map<K, ?> mapOf(Map.Entry<K, ?>... entries) {
    HashMap<K, Object> map = new HashMap<>();

    for (Map.Entry<K, ?> entry : entries) {
        map.put(entry.getKey(), entry.getValue());

    return Collections.unmodifiableMap(map);

// Create a map entry
public static <K> Map.Entry<K, ?> entry(K key, Object value) {
    return new AbstractMap.SimpleImmutableEntry<>(key, value);

Using these methods, the previous example can be reduced to a single line of code:

process(mapOf(entry("a", 1), entry("b", 2), entry("c", 3)));

It may not be quite as elegant as the Swift or JavaScript versions, but it is a lot more convenient than creating and populating the map an element at a time.